Martins AB, Valença-Montenegro MM, Lima MGM, Lynch JW, Svoboda WK, Silva-Júnior JdSe, Röhe F, Boubli JP, Fiore AD. A New Assessment of Robust Capuchin Monkey (Sapajus) Evolutionary History Using Genome-Wide SNP Marker Data and a Bayesian Approach to Species Delimitation. Genes. 2023; 14(5):970.


“Robust capuchin monkeys, Sapajus genus, are among the most phenotypically diverse and widespread groups of primates in South America, with one of the most confusing and often shifting taxonomies. We used a ddRADseq approach to generate genome-wide SNP markers for 171 individuals from all putative extant species of Sapajus to access their evolutionary history. Using maximum likelihood, multispecies coalescent phylogenetic inference, and a Bayes Factor method to test for alternative hypotheses of species delimitation, we inferred the phylogenetic history of the Sapajus radiation, evaluating the number of discrete species supported. Our results support the recognition of three species from the Atlantic Forest south of the São Francisco River, with these species being the first splits in the robust capuchin radiation. Our results were congruent in recovering the Pantanal and Amazonian Sapajus as structured into three monophyletic clades, though new morphological assessments are necessary, as the Amazonian clades do not agree with previous morphology-based taxonomic distributions. Phylogenetic reconstructions for Sapajus occurring in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and northeastern Atlantic Forest were less congruent with morphology-based phylogenetic reconstructions, as the bearded capuchin was recovered as a paraphyletic clade, with samples from the Caatinga biome being either a monophyletic clade or nested with the blond capuchin monkey.”